原创翻译:龙腾网 http://usvisapass.com 翻译:载入中。。。 转载请注明出处
论坛地址:http://usvisapass.com/bbs/thread-358357-1-1.html

The African country helping India feed 1.2 billion people

这个非洲国家帮助印度养育它的12亿人民













(CNN)The global food price crises between 2008 and 2009 led countries that bore the brunt of the catastrophe to look elsewhere for agricultural land to mitigate the effects.

(CNN)2008年到2009年的全球食品价格危机让在危机中受苦的国家寻求其它的农业用地来缓解影响。

In 2008 prices of some foods, including wheat, soared by 130% in a single year and the United Nation's Food and Agriculture Organisation's food price index shot up 40%.

2008年一些食物的价格(包括小麦)在一年内飞涨了130%,联合国粮食和农业组织的食品价格指数上升了40%。

The result was a frenzied scramble that saw countries acquire an estimated 40 million hectares of land in foreign countries, most of it in Africa.

结果就是各国疯狂争夺估计4000万公顷的外国土地,大部分在非洲。

A great deal of attention has been paid to the role of the US, the largest investor in land in the world, China and Middle Eastern countries. Much less attention has been given to the role of India. A global land monitoring initiative, Land Matrix, ranks India as one of the top 10 investors in land abroad. It is the biggest investor in land in Ethiopia, with Indian companies accounting for almost 70% the land acquired by foreigners after 2008.

最大的竞争者是美国(全球土地最大的投资者),中国和中东国家。很少有人注意到印度。一个全球性的土地监测法案,Land Matrix,让印度成为海外土地投资者的前十名.



What drives Indian firms to Ethiopia

什么驱使印度企业进入埃塞俄比亚

India's ability to feed its 1.22 billion people is under increasing strain. This is due to a rapidly growing population, low agricultural productivity, reductions in farm sizes, declining water tables, increasing control of the seed sector by multi-nationals and a gradual withdrawal since the 1990s of the farm support system.

www.23026.com_【官方首页】-新葡京娱乐场印度供养它12.2亿人民的能力一直很紧张。这是由于它快速增长的人口,较低的农业生产率,不断减少的耕地面积,不断下降的地下水水位,被很多国家控制的种子生产和1990年来不断衰退的农业支持系统。



The lure of Ethiopia

埃塞俄比亚的诱惑

The Ethiopian agricultural sector lies at the heart of the government's development strategy. It has set out to attract more foreign investment in large-scale commercial agriculture as outlined in its 1993 policy which was later reformulated in 2005.

www.23026.com_【官方首页】-新葡京娱乐场埃塞俄比亚农业部门是政府发展战略的中心。它开始吸引更多的国外投资者投资大块商品农业区,这是1993年制定的政策,并在2005年被重新制定。

The policy marked a move towards a more trade-orientated approach, and a desire to attract foreign investors. Over 3.5 million hectares of land has been earmarked for investment by foreign firms.

这个政策标志着一个更加贸易导向的趋势,迫切的要吸引外国投资者。超过350万公顷土地已经被指定供应给外国企业。

Need for caution

需要谨慎

Foreign investors need to tread carefully when acquiring land in Africa. This is best illustrated in the Gambela region of Ethiopia which I visited earlier this year. The area has been the centre of large-scale land acquisitions by Indian as well as other foreign investors.

www.23026.com_【官方首页】-新葡京娱乐场在非洲购买土地时,外国投资者需要小心谨慎。这是我去年早期访问了埃塞俄比亚甘贝拉州后提出的忠告。这个区域位于印度和其他国家投资者购买土地的中心地区。

According to the Ethiopian constitution, land is administered by the regional government. However, the federal government's move to govern land investments through a centralized agency called the Agricultural Investment Land Administration Agency has led to discontent among Gambela regional government officials.

www.23026.com_【官方首页】-新葡京娱乐场根据埃塞俄比亚宪法,土地由地方政府管理。然而,联邦政府授权中央农业土地投资管理局管理土地投资的做法已经引起了甘贝拉地方政府的不满。

The concern is that the behaviour of foreign companies is not being managed adequately. There is a strong sense that land deals in Ethiopia have benefited both the foreign investors and domestic private capitalists with close ties to the ruling party.

www.23026.com_【官方首页】-新葡京娱乐场一个担忧是,外国企业的行为没有被充分控制。埃塞俄比亚的土地交易既有利于海外投资者,也有利于国内与执政党联系紧密的资本家。

A recent study found that foreign investors are farming less than 8% of the land they have acquired. During my visit I learnt that Karuturi Global Ltd, an Indian firm which has 100 000 hectares of land in Gambela, had only 1 000 hectares under production.

一个近期的研究发现,外国投资者只耕种了他们购买土地的8%。在我访问期间,我研究了一家在埃塞俄比亚拥有100000公顷土地的印度企业Karuturi Global Ltd,它的土地中只有1000公顷土地在进行生产。

A lack of consultation with people living in the area is also a problem. Gambela is an ecological hotspot with Gambela National Park at its centre. It is home to Nuer and Anuak people whose livelihoods are threatened by investors illegally clearing trees in the park. These clearances happen mostly without consultation. This has led to conflict in the region.

与所在区域居民缺少磋商也是一个问题。www.23026.com_【官方首页】-新葡京娱乐场甘贝拉是一个生态热点区,甘贝拉国家公园就在它的中心。它是努尔人和阿努克人的家园,他们在此区域的生活遭受了投资者非法采伐公园树木的影响。这些砍伐大部分都没有进行磋商。已经在一些区域导致冲突发生。

Given the political nature of international land deals and the role states play in shaping policy and practice, there must be scrutiny on the role governments play in such deals because of their close alliance with private capital.

考虑到国际土地交易的政治性和国家在形成政策和行为中代表的角色,必须针对此类交易中的政府角色进行监控,因为他们与私人资本联系紧密。

This is especially so for India. It can ill-afford to be tainted by accusations of complicity in land deals that disadvantage the people of Africa given the role it sees for itself in promoting co-operation among countries in the south to mitigate the effects of skewed power relations with the north.

对印度来说更是如此。它难以承担土地贸易黑幕指控所造成的后果。以我亲眼所见,在为缓解南北关系不平等而加强南南合作的努力中,这些非洲人在被赋予的角色中并没有获得利益。